of The Prophet Muhammad ()
was born in Mecca ( Makkah), Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi'
Al-Awal (2 August A.D. 570). His mother, Aminah, was the
daughter of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His
father, 'Abdullah, was the son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy
has been traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of
Abraham in about the fortieth descend. Muhammad
father died before his birth.
Before he was six years old his mother died, and the doubly
orphaned Muhammad ()
was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib
who took the most tender care of him. But the old chief
died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided to
his son Abu Talib the charge of the little orphan.
When Muhammad ()
was twelve years old, he accompanied his uncle Abu Talib
on a mercantile journey to Syria, and they proceeded as
far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was
at Busra that the Christian monk Bahira met Muhammad
He is related to have said to Abu Talib: 'Return with this
boy and guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a
great career awaits your nephew."
After this journey, the youth of Muhammad
seems to have been passed uneventfully, but all authorities
agree in ascribing to him such correctness of manners and
purity of morals as were rare among the people of Mecca.
The fair character and the honorable bearing of the unobtrusive
youth won the approbation of the citizens of Mecca, and
b y common consent he received the title of "Al Ameen,"
In his early years, Muhammad
was not free from the cares of life. He had to watch the
flocks of his uncle, who, like the rest of the Bani Hashim,
had lost the greater part of his wealth.
From youth to manhood he led an almost solitary life. The
lawlessness rife among the Meccans, the sudden outbursts
of causeless and bloody quarrels among the tribes frequenting
the Fair of Okadh (The Arabian Olympia), and the immorality
and skepticism of the Quraish, naturally caused feelings
of pity and sorrow in the heart of the sensitive youth.
Such scenes of social misery and religious degradation were
characteristic of a depraved age.
When Muhammad ()
was twenty five years old, he traveled once more to Syria
as a factor of a noble and rich Quraishi widow named Khadijah;
and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests
of that lady, he was soon rewarded with her hand in marriage.
This marriage proved fortunate and singularly happy. Khadijah
was much the senior of her husband, but in spite of the
disparity of age between them, the most tender devotion
on both sides existed. This marriage gave him the loving
heart of a woman who was ever ready to console him in his
despair and to keep alive within him the feeble, flickering
flame of hope when no man believed in him and the world
appeared gloomy in his eyes.
Until he reached thirty years of age, Muhammad
was almost a stranger to the outside world. Since the death
of his grandfather, authority in Mecca was divided among
the ten senators who constituted the governing body of the
Arabian Commonwealth. There was no such accord among them
as to ensure the safety of individual rights and property.
Though family relations afforded some degree of protection
to citizens, yet strangers were frequently exposed to persecution
and oppression. In many cases they were robbed, not only
of their goods, but even of their wives and daughters. At
the instigation of the faithful Muhammad
an old league called the Federation of Fudul, i.e., favors
was revived with the object of repressing lawlessness and
defending every weak individual - whether Meccan or stranger,
free or slave - against any wrong or oppression to which
he might be the victim within the territories of Mecca.
When Muhammad ()
reached thirty-five years, he settled by his judgment a
grave dispute, which threatened to plunge the whole of Arabia
into a fresh series of her oft-recurring wars. In rebuilding
the Sacred House of the Ka'ba in A.D. 605, the question
arose as to who should have the honor of raising the black
stone, the most holy relic of that House, into its proper
place. Each tribe claimed that honor. The senior citizen
advised the disputants to accept for their arbitrator the
first man to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was
agreed upon, and the first man who entered the gate was
"Al-Ameen." His advice satisfied all the contending
parties. He ordered the stone to be placed on a piece of
cloth and each tribe to share the honor of lifting it up
by taking hold of a part of the cloth. The stone was thus
deposited in its place, and the rebuilding of the House
was completed without further interruption.
It is related that, about this time, a certain Usman, Ibn
Huwairith, supported by Byzantine gold, made an attempt
to convert the territory of Hijaz into a Roman dependency,
but the attempt failed, chiefly through the instrumentality
of Muhammad ().
These are nearly all the public acts related by historians
in which Muhammad ()
took part in the first fifteen years of his marriage to
Khadijah. As for his private life he is described to have
been ever helpful to the needy and the helpless. His uncle
Abu Talib had fallen into distress through his endeavors
to maintain the old position of his family. Muhammad
being rather rich at this time by his alliance with Khadijah,
tried to discharge part of the debt of gratitude and obligation
which he owed to his uncle by undertaking the bringing up
and education of his son 'Ali. A year later he adopted 'Akil,
another of his uncle's sons.
Khadijah bore Muhammad
three sons and four daughters. All the males died in childhood,
but in loving 'Ali he found much consolation.
About this time, Muhammad
set a good example of kindness, which created a salutary
effect upon his people. His wife Khadijah had made him a
present of young slave named Zaid Ibn Haritha, who had been
brought as a captive to Mecca and sold to Khadijah. When
Haritha heard that Muhammad
possessed Zaid, he came to Mecca and offered a large sum
for his ransom. Whereupon Muhammd said: "Let Zaid come
here, and if he chooses to go with you, take him without
ransom; but if it be his choice to stay with me, why should
I not keep him?' Zaid, being brought into Muhammad
presence, declared that he would stay with his master, who
treated him as if he was his only son. Muhammad
no sooner heard this than he took Zaid by the hand and led
him to the black stone of Ka'ba, where he publicly adopted
him as his son, to which the father acquiesced and returned
home well satisfied. Henceforward Zaid was called the son
of Muhammad ().
Muhammd was now approaching his fortieth year, and his mind
was ever-engaged in profound contemplation and reflection.
Before him lay his country, bleeding and torn by fratricidal
wars and intolerable dissension's; his people, sunk in barbarism,
addicted to the observation of rites and superstitions,
were, with all their desert virtues, lawless and cruel.
His two visits to Syria had opened to him a scene of unutterable
moral and social desolation, rival creeds and sects tearing
each other to pieces, carrying their hatred to the valleys
and deserts of Hijaz, and rending the townships of Arabia
with their quarrels and bitterness.
For years after his marriage, Muhammad
had been accustomed to secluding himself in a cave in Mount
Hira, a few miles from Mecca. To this cave he used to go
for prayer and meditation, sometimes alone and sometime
with his family. There, he often spent the whole nights
in deep thought and profound communion with the Unseen yet
All-Knowing Allah of the Universe. It was during one of
those retirements and in the still hours of the night, when
no human sympathy was near, that an angel came to him to
tell him that he was the Messenger of Allah sent to reclaim
a fallen people to the knowledge and service of their Lord.
Renowned compilers of authentic traditions of Islam agree
on the following account of the first revelations received
by the Prophet ().
would seclude himself in the cave of Mount Hira and worship
three days and nights. He would, whenever he wished, return
to his family at Mecca and then go back again, taking wihim
the necessities of life. Thus he continued to return to
Khadijah from time to time until one day the revelation
came down to him and the Angel Gabriel (Jibreel) appeared
to him and said: "Read!" But as Muhammad ()
was illiterate, having never received any instruction in
reading or writing, he said to the angel: "I am not
a reader." The angel took a hold of him and squeezed
him as much as he could bear, and then said again: "Read!"
Then Prophet ()
said: "I am not a reader." The Angel again
seized the Prophet ()
and squeezed him and said: "Read! In the Name of Your
Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created a man
from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And
your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught (the writing)
by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not."
Then the Prophet ()
repeated the words with a trembling heart. He returned to
Khadijah from Mount Hira and said: "Wrap me up! Wrap
me up!" She wrapped him in a garment until his fear
was dispelled. He told Khadijah what had occurred and that
he was becoming either a soothsayer or one smitten with
madness. She replied: "Allah forbid! He will surely
not let such a thing happen, for you speak the truth, you
are faithful in trust, you bear the afflictions of the people,
you spend in good works what you gain in trade, you are
hospitable and you assist your fellow men. Have you seen
anything terrible?" Muhammad ()
replied: "Yes," and told her what he had seen.
Whereupon, Khadijah said: "Rejoice, O dear husband
and be cheerful. He is Whose hands stands Khadijah's life
bears witness to the truth of this fact, that you will be
the Prophet ()
to this people." Then she arose and went to her cousin
Waraqa Ibn Naufal, who was old and blind and who knew the
Scriptures of the Jews and Christians, and is stated to
have translated them into Arabic. When she told him of what
she had heard, he cried out: "Holy! Holy! Verily, this
is the Namus (The Holy Spirit) who came to Moses. He will
be the Prophet ()
of his people. Tell him this and bid him to be brave at
heart." When the two men met subsequently in the street,
the blind old student of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures
spoke of his faith and trust: "I swear by Him in Who
hand Waraqa's life is, Allah has chosen you to be the Prophet
of this people. They will call you a liar, they will persecute
you, they will banish you, and they will fight against you.
Oh, that I could live to those days. I would fight for these."
And he kissed him on the forehead.
The first vision was followed by a considerable period,
during which Muhammad ()
suffered much mental depression. The angel spoke to the
grieved heart of hope and trust and of the bright future
when he would see the people of the earth crowding into
the one true faith. His destiny was unfolded to him, when,
wrapped in profound meditation, melancholy and sad, he felt
himself called by a voice from heaven to arise and preach.
O you (Muhammad ())
enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And your Lord (Allah)
He arose and engaged himself in the work to which he was
called. Khadijah was the first to accept his mission. She
was to believe in the revelations, to abandon the idolatry
of her people and to join him in purity of heart and in
offering up prayers to Allah the Almighty.
At the beginning of his mission, Muhammad ()
- hereinafter called the Prophet ()
- opened his soul only to those who were attached to him
and tried to free them from the gross practices of their
forefathers. After Khadijah, his cousin' Ali was the next
companion. The Prophet ()
used often to go into the desert around Mecca with his wife
and young cousin that they might together offer their heart
felt thanks to the Lord of all nations for His manifold
blessings. Once they were surprised by Abu Talib, the father
of 'Ali. He said to the Prophet ():
"O son of my brother, what is this religion you are
following?" "It is the religion of Allah of His
Angels, of His Messengers and of our ancestor Abraham,"
answered the Prophet ().
"Allah has sent me to His servants, to direct them
towards the truth, and you, O my uncle, are the most worthy
of all. It is meet that I should thus call upon you and
it is meet that you should accept the truth and help in
Abu Talib replied: "Son of my brother, I cannot abjure
the religion of my fathers; but by the Supreme Lord, while
I am alive, none shall dare to injure you." Then turning
towards 'Ali, the venerable chief asked what religion was
his. Ali answered: "O father, I believe in Allah and
His Prophet ()
and go with him." Abu Talib replied: "Well my
son, he will not call you to anything except what is good,
therefore you are free to go with him."
After 'Ali, Muhammad ()'s
adopted son Zaid became a convert to the new faith. He was
followed by Abu Bakr, a leading member of the Quraish tribe
and an honest, wealthy merchant who enjoyed great consideration
among his compatriots. He was but two years younger than
the Prophet ().
His adoption of the new faith was of great moral effect.
Soon after, five notables presented themselves before the
and accepted Islam. Several converts also came from lower
classes of the Arabs to adopt the new religion.
For three weary long years, the Prophet ()
labored very quietly to deliver his people from the worship
of idols. Polytheism was deeply rooted among the people.
It offered attractions, which the new faith in its purity
did not possess. The Quraish had personal material interests
in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon
its maintenance. The Prophet ()
had to contend with the idolatrous worship of its followers
and to oppose the ruling oligarchy, which governed its destinies.
After three years of constant but quiet struggle, only thirty
followers were secured. An important change now occurred
in the relations of the Prophet ()
with the citizens of Mecca. His compatriots had begun to
doubt his sanity, thinking him crazy or possessed by an
evil spirit. Hitherto he preached quietly and unobtrusively.
He now decided to appeal publicly to the Meccans, requesting
them to abandon their idolatry. For this he arranged a gathering
on a neighboring hill and there spoke to them of their folly
in the sight of Allah in worshipping pieces of stone which
they called their gods. He invited them to abandon their
old impious worship and adopt the faith of love, truth and
purity. He warned them of the fate that had overtaken past
races who had not heeded the preaching of former Prophet
But the gathering departed without listening to the warning
given them by the Prophet ().
Having thus failed to induce his fellow citizens to listen
to him, he turned his attention to the strangers arriving
in the city on commerce or pilgrimage. But the Quraish made
attempts to frustrate his efforts. They hastened themselves
to meet the strangers first on different routes, to warn
them against holding any communication with the Prophet
whom they represented as a dangerous magician. When the
pilgrims or traders returned to their homes, they carried
with them the news of the advent of the bold preacher who
was inviting the Arabs loudly - at the risk of his own life
- to abandon the worship of their dear idols.
Now the Prophet ()
and his followers became subject to some persecution and
indignity. The hostile Quraish prevented the Prophet ()
from offering his prayers at the Sacred House of the Ka'ba;
they pursued him wherever he went; they covered him and
his disciples with dirt and filth when engaged in their
devotions; they scattered thorns in the places which he
frequented for devotion and meditation. Amidst all these
trials the Prophet ()
did not waver. He was full of confidence in his mission,
even when on several occasions he was put in imminent danger
of losing his life.
At this time Hamza, the youngest son of Abdul Muttalib,
adopted Islam. Hamza was a man of distinguished bravery,
an intrepid warrior, generous and true, whose heroism earned
for him the title of the "Lion of Allah." He became
a devoted adherent of Islam and everlost his life in the
The Prophet ()
continued preaching to the Arabs in a most gentle and reasonable
manner. He called thepeople, so accustomed to iniquity and
wrong doings, to abandon their abominations. In burning
words which excited the hearts of his hearers, he warned
them of the punishment which Allah had inflicted upon the
ancient tribes of 'Ad and Thamud who had obstinately disobeyed
the teachings of Allah's messengers to them. He adjured
them by the wonderful sights of nature, by the noon day
brightness, by the night when it spreads its veil, by the
day when it appears in glory to listen to his warning before
a similar destruction befell them. He spoke to them of the
Day of Reckoning, when their deeds in this world will be
weighed before the Eternal Judge, when the children who
had been buried alive will be asked for what crime they
were put to death.
Almighty Allah said:
Nay, they wonder that there has
come to them a Warner (Muhammad ())
from among themselves. So the disbeliveers say: "This
is a strange thing! When we are dead and have become dust
(shall we be resurrected)? That is a far return." We
know that which the earth takes of them (their dead bodies),
and with Us is a Book preserved (i.e., the Book of Decrees).
Nay, but, they have denied the truth (this Qur'an) when
it has come to them, so they are in a confused state (can
not differentiate between right and wrong). Have they not
looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and
adorned it, and there are no rifts in it? And the earth!
We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing
firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth
An insight and a reminder for every slave turning to Allah
(i.e., the one who believes in Allah and performs deeds
of His obedience, and always begs His pardon). And We send
down blessed water (rain) from the sky, then we produce
therewith gardens and grain (every kind of harvests that
are reaped). And tall date palms, with ranged clusters;
a provision for (Allah's) slaves. And We give life therewith
to a dead land. Thus will be the resurrection (of the dead).
Denied before them (i.e. these pagans of Makka who denied
you, O Muhammad ())
the people of Noah, and the dwellers of Rass, and the Thamud,
and 'Ad, and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot, and the dwellers
of the Wood, and the people of Tubba, everyone of them denied
their Messengers, so My Threat took effect."
( 50: 2-14 Quran)
Almighty Allah also declared:
All praises and thanks be to Allah
Who Alone created the heavens and the earth, and originated
the darkness and the light, yet those who disbelieve hold
others as equal with their Lord. He it is Who has created
you from clay, and then has decreed a stated term (for you
to die). And there is with Him another determined term (for
you to be resurrected), yet you doubt (in the Resurrection).
And He is Allah (to be worshipped Alone) in the heavens
and on the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you
reveal, and He knows what you earn (good or bad). And never
an Ayah (sign) comes to them from the Ayat (proofs, evidences,
lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of their Lord, but that
they have been turning away from it.
Indeed, they rejected the truth (The Qur'an and Muhammad
when it came to them, but there will come to them the news
of that (the torment) which they used to mock at. Have they
not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed
whom We had established on the earth such as We have not
established you? And We poured out on them rain from the
sky in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them. Yet
We destroyed them for their sins, and created after them
( 6:1-6 Quran)
As the number of believers increased and the cause of the
was strengthened by the conversions of many powerful citizens,
the Prophet ()'s
preaching alarmed the Quraish. Their power and prestige
were at stake. They were the custodians of the idols, which
the Prophet ()
had threatened to destroy; they were the ministers of the
worship, which he denounced; in fact their existence and
living wholly depended upon the maintenance of the old institutions.
The Prophet ()
taught that in the sight of his Lord all human were equal,
the only distinction recognized among them being the weight
of their piety.
Allah the Exalted said:
O mankind! We have created you
from a male and a female, and made you into nations and
tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most
honorable of you in the Sight of Allah is that believer
who has At Taqwa (one of the Muttaqun, pious and righteous
persons who fear Allah much, abstain from all kinds of sins
and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much
(perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained.
Verily! Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware."
( 49:13 Quran).
The Quraish would have none of this leveling of distinctions,
as it reflected upon their long inherited privileges. Accordingly,
they organized a system of persecution in order to suppress
the movement before it became firmly established. They decided
that each family should take upon itself the task of stamping
out the new faith on the spot. Each household tortured its
own members or adherents or slaves who were supposed to
have connected themselves with the new religion. With the
exception of the Prophet (),
who was protected by Abu Talib and his kinsmen, and Abu
Bakr, and a few others who were either distinguished by
their rank or possessed some influence among the Quraish,
all other converts were subjected to different sorts of
torture. Some of them were thrown into prison, starved,
and then flogged. The hill of Ramada and the place called
Bata thus became scenes of cruel torture.
One day the Quraish tried to induce the Prophet ()
to discontinue his teachings of the new religion, which
had sown discord among their people. 'Utba Ibn Rabi'a, was
delegated to see the Prophet ()
and speak to him. 'Utba said: "O son of my brother,
you are distinguished by your qualities; yet you have sown
discord among our people and cast dissension in our families;
you denounced our gods and goddesses and you charge our
ancestors with impiety. Now we are come to make a proposition
to you, and I ask you to think well before you reject it."
"I am listening to you, O father of Walid," said
the Prophet ().
"O son of my brother, if by this affair you intend
to acquire riches, honors, and dignity, we are willing to
collect for you a fortune larger than is possessed by any
one of us; we shall make you our chief and will do nothing
without you. If you desire dominion, we shall make you our
king; and if the demon which possesses you cannot be subdued,
we will bring you doctors and give them riches until they
cure you." When 'Utba had finished his discourse, the
said: "Now listen to me, O father of Walid." "I
listen." He replied. The Prophet (),
recited to him the first thirteen verses of Surah Fussilat,
which maybe interpreted as follows:
In the Name of Allah The Most
Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
Ha Mim (These letters are one of the miracles of the Quran,
and none but Allah Alone knows their meanings). A revelation
from Allah the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. A Book
whereof the Verses are explained in detail; - a Quran in
Arabic for people who know. Giving glad tidings (of Paradise
to the one who believes in the Oneness of Allah, Islamic
Monotheism) and fears Allah much (abstains from all kinds
of sins and evil deeds) and loves Allah much (performing
all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained), and warning
(of punishment in the Hellfire to be the one who disbelieves
in the Oneness of Allah), but most of them turn away, so
they listen not.
And they say: "Our hearts are under coverings (screened)
from that to which you invite us, and in our ears is deafness,
and between us and you is a screen, so work you (on your
way); verily we are working (on our way).
Say (O Muhammad ()):
"I am only a human being like you. It is inspired in
me that your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God - Allah), therefore
take the Straight Path to Him (with true Faith - Islamic
Monotheism) and obedience to Him, and seek forgiveness of
Him. And woe to Al-Mushrikeen; (polytheists, pagans, idolaters,
and disbeliveers in the Oneness of Allah, etc, those who
worship others along with or set up rivals or partners to
Allah etc.) Those who give not the Zakat and they are disbeliveers
in the Hereafter. Truly, those who believe (in the Oneness
of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ()
- Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds for them
will be an endless reward that will never stop (Paradise).
Say (O Muhammad ()):
"Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth
in two Days and you set up rivals (in worship) with Him?
That is the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that
He placed therein (the earth) firm mountains from above
it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance
(for its dwellers) in four Days equal (all these four days
were equal in the length of time), for all those who ask
(about its creation). Then He Istawa (rose over) towards
the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the
earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly."
They both said: "We come, willingly." Then He
completed and finished from their creation as seven heavens
in two days and he made in each heaven with lamps (stars)
to b e an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils
by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the
Decree of Him the All Mighty, The All Knower.
But if they turn away, then say (O Muhammad ()):
"I have warned you of a Sa'iqa (a destruction awful
cry, torment, hit, a thunder bolt) like the Sa'iqa which
overtook 'Ad and Thamud (people)."
( 41:1-13 Quran).
When the Prophet ()
had finished his recitation, he said to 'Utba: "This
is my reply to your proposition; now take what course you
Persecution by the Quraish grew fiercer every day and the
sufferings of the Prophet ()'s
disciples became unbearable. He had heard of the righteousness,
tolerance, and hospitality of the neighboring Christian
king of Abyssinia. He recommended such of his companions
who were without protection to seek refuge in the kingdom
of that pious king, Al Najashi (Negus). Some fifteen of
the unprotected adherents of Islam promptly availed themselves
of the advice and sailed to Abyssinia. Here they met with
a very kind reception from the Negus. This is called the
first hijrah (migration) in the history of Islam and occurred
in the fifth year of the Prophet ()
mission, A.D. 615. These emigrants were soon followed by
many of their fellow sufferers, until the number reached
eighty-three men and eighteen women.
The hostile Quraish, furious at the escape of their victims,
sent deputes to the king of Abyssinia to request him to
deliver up the refugees, that they might be put to death
for adjuring their old religion and embracing a new one.
The king summoned the poor fugitives and inquired of them
what was the religion, which they had adopted in preference
to their old faith. Ja'far, son of Abu Talib and brother
of 'Ali, acted as spokesman for the exiles. He spoke thus:
"O king, we were plunged in the depth of ignorance
and barbarism, we adored idols, we lived in unchastity,
and we ate dead bodies, and we spoke abomination, we disregarded
every feeling of humanity and sense of duty towards our
neighbors, and we knew no law but that of the strong, when
Allah raised among us a man, of whose birth, truthfulness,
honesty, and purity we were aware. He called us to profess
the Unity of Allah and taught us to associate nothing with
Him; he forbade us the worship of idols and enjoined us
to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be
merciful, and to regard the rights of neighbors; he forbade
us to speak evil of the worship of Allah and not to return
to the worship of idols of woos and stone and to abstain
from evil, to offer prayers, to give alms, to observe the
fast. We have believed in him, we have accepted his teachings
and his injunctions to worship Allah alone and to associate
nothing with Him. Hence our people have persecuted us, trying
to make us forego the worship of Allah and return to the
worship of idols of wood and stone and other abominations.
They have tortured us and injured us until, finding no safety
among them, we have come to your kingdom trusting you will
give us protection against their persecution."
After hearing the above speech, the hospitable king ordered
the deputies to return to their people in safety and not
to interfere with their fugitives. Thus the emigrants passed
the period of exile in peace and comfort.
While the followers of the Prophet ()
sought safety in foreign lands against the persecution of
their people, he continued his warnings to the Quraish more
strenuously than ever. Again they came to him with offers
of riches and honor, which he firmly and utterly refused.
But they mocked at him and urged him for miracles to prove
his mission. He used to answer: "Allah has not sent
me to work wonders; He has sent me to preach to you."
Thus disclaiming all power of wonder working, the Prophet
ever rested the truth of his divine mission upon his wise
teachings. He addressed himself to the inner consciousness
of man, to his common sense and to his own better judgement.
Say (O Muhammad ()):
"I am only a human being like you. It is inspired in
me that your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God- Allah), therefore
take the Straight Path to Him (with true Faith - Islamic
Monotheism) and obedience to Him and seek forgiveness of
Him. And woe to Al Mushrikeen; (polytheists, pagans, idolaters,
and disbeliveers in the Oneness of Allah etc., those who
worship others along with Allah or set up rivals or partners
to Allah etc.
( 41:6 Quran)
Despite all the exhortation of the Prophet (),
the Quraish persisted in asking him for a sign. They insisted
that unless some sign be sent down to him from his Lord,
they would not believe. The disbeliveers used to ask: "Why
has Muhammad ()
not been sent with miracles like previous Prophet ()s?"
The Prophet ()
replied: "Because miracles had proved inadequate to
convince. Noah was sent with signs, and with what effect?
Where was the lost tribe of Thamud? They had refused to
receive the preaching of the Prophet ()
Salih, unless he showed them a sign and caused the rock
to bring forth a living camel. He did what they asked. In
scorn they cut the camel's feet and then daring the Prophet
to fulfill his threats of judgment, were found dead in their
beds the next morning, stricken by the angel of the Lord."
There are some seventeen places in the Quran, in which the
is challenged to work a sign, and he answered them all to
the same or similar effect: Allah has the power of working
miracles, and has not been believed; there were greater
miracles in nature than any which could be wrought outside
of it; and the Quran itself was a great, everlasting miracle.
The Quran, the Prophet ()
used to assert to the disbeliveers, is a book of blessings
which is a warning for the whole world; it is a complete
guidance and explains everything necessary; it is a reminder
of what is imprinted on human nature and is free from every
discrepancy and from error and falsehood. It is a book of
true guidance and a light to all.
As to the sacred idols, so much honored and esteemed by
the pagan Arabs, the Prophet ()
They are but names which you have
named - you and your fathers - for which Allah has sent
down no authority.
( 53:23 Quran)
When the Prophet ()
thus spoke reproachfully of the sacred gods of the Quraish,
the latter redoubled their persecution. But the Prophet
nevertheless, continued his preaching undaunted but the
hostility of his enemies or by their bitter persecution
of him. And despite all opposition and increased persecution,
the new faith gained ground. The national fair at Okadh
near Mecca attracted many desert Bedouins and trading citizen
of distant towns. These listened to the teachings of the
to his admonitions, and to his denunciations of their sacred
idols and of their superstitions. They carried back all
that they had heard to their distant homes, and thus the
advent of the Prophet ()
was made know to almost all parts of the peninsula.
The Meccans, however, were more than ever furious at the
increasing preaching against their religion. They asked
his uncle Abu Talib to stop him, but he could not do anything.
At , as the Prophet ()
persisted in his ardent denunciations against their ungodliness
and impiety, they turned him out from the Ka'ba where he
used to sit and preach, and subsequently went in a body
to Abu Talib. They urged the venerable chief to prevent
his nephew from abusing their gods any longer or uttering
any ill words against their ancestors. They warned Abu Talib
that if he would not do that, he would be excluded from
the communion of his people and driven to side with Muhammad
the matter would then be settled by fight until one of the
two parties were exterminated.
Abu Talib neither wished to separate himself from his people,
nor forsake his nephew for the idolaters to revenge themselves
upon. He spoke to the Prophet ()
very softly and begged him to abandon his affair. To this
suggestion the Prophet ()
firmly replied: "O my uncle, if they placed the sun
in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to cause me
to renounce my task, verily I would not desist therefrom
until Allah made manifest His cause or I perished in the
attempt." The Prophet (),
overcome by the thought that his uncle and protector was
willing to desert him, turned to depart. But Abu Talib called
him loudly to come back, and he came. "Say whatever
you please; for by the Lord I shall not desert you ever."
The Quraish again attempted in vain to cause Abu Talib to
abandon his nephew. The venerable chief declared his intention
to protect his nephew against any menace or violence. He
appealed to the sense of honor of the two families of the
Bani Hashim and the Bani Muttalib, both families being kinsmen
of the Prophet (),
to protect their member from falling a victim to the hatred
of rival parties. All the members of the two families nobly
responded to the appeal of Abu Talib except Abu Lahab, one
of the Prophet ()'s
uncles, who took part with the persecutors.
During this period, 'Umar Al-Khattab adopted Islam. In him
the new faith gained a valuable adherent and an important
factor in the future development and propagation of Islam.
Hitherto he had been a violent opposer of the Prophet ()
and a bitter enemy of Islam. His conversion is said to have
been worked by the miraculous effect on his mind of a Surah
of the Quran which his sister was reading in her house,
where he had gone with the intention of killing her for
adopting Islam. Thus the party of the Prophet ()
had been strengthened by the conversation by his uncle Hamza,
a man of great valor and merit; and of Abu Bakr and 'Umar,
both men of great energy and reputation. The Muslims now
ventured to perform their devotions in public.
Keyword : prophet muhammad, allah, islam,
quran, muslim, prophet,koran, prophets muhammad, muhammad
the prophet, prophet of muhammad, muhammad prophet, islam
religion, religion of islam, sufism, mohammed the prophet,
mohammed prophet, muslim religion, history of islam, the
prophet muhammad, the prophet of muhammad, muhammad pbuh,
pbuh muhammad, life of muhammad, life of prophet, life of
the prophet, the religion of islam, prophet pbuh, pbuh prophet,
prophet mohammed life, life of prophet mohammed, life of
mohammed prophet, prophet mohammed pbuh, biography of the
prophet, biography of prophet