An Essay about the Wahhabi Crimes
against Islam and against Muslims
by Mawlana Shaykhu-l-Islam Ahmad Zayni
Dahlan al-Makki ash-Shafi'i,
Chief Mufti of Mecca al-Mukarramah, may Allah be pleased with
During the reign of Sultan Salim III (1204-1222
AH) many tribulations took place. One was the tribulation
of the Wahhabiyyah which started in the area of al-Hijaz(1)
where they captured al-Haramayn(2), and prevented Muslims
coming from ash-Sham(3) and Egypt from reaching their destination
to perform Pilgrimage (Hajj). Another tribulation is that
of the French who controlled Egypt from 1213 A.H. until 1216
A.H. Let us here speak briefly about the two adversities(4),
because each was mentioned in detail in the books of history
and in separate treatises.
Background on The Tribulations of The Wahhabis
The fighting started between the Wahhabis
and the Prince of Mecca,
Mawlana Sharif Ghalib Ibn Bu Sa'id, who had been appointed
by the honored Muslim Sultan as his ruling representative
over the areas of al-Hijaz. This was in 1205 AH during the
time of Sultan Salim III, the son of Sultan Mustafa III, the
son of Ahmad. Previous to the outbreak of fighting, the Wahhabis
began to build power and gain followers in their areas. As
their territories expanded, their evil and harm increased
They killed countless numbers of Muslims, legitimated confiscating
their money and possessions, and captured their women. The
founder of their wicked doctrine was Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab,
who originated from eastern Arabia, from the tribe of Banu
Tamim. He lived a long life, about one-hundred years. He was
born in 1111 AH and died in 1200 AH. His history was narrated
Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab started as a student of knowledge
in the city of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:
Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab's father was a good, pious man among the
people of knowledge as was his brother, Shaykh Sulayman. His
father, his brother, and his shaykhs (teachers of religion)
had the foresight Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab would innovate a great
deal of deviation and misguidance, because of their observance
of his sayings, actions, and inclinations concerning many
issues. They used to reprimand him and warn people against
Some of The Beliefs of Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
What Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab's father, brother,
and shaykhs speculated about him came true--by the Will of
Allah, ta'ala. Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab innovated deviant and misleading
ways and beliefs and managed to allure some ignorant people
to follow him. His deviant and misleading ways and beliefs
disagreed with the sayings of the scholars of the Religion.
His deviant beliefs led him to label the believers as blasphemers!
He falsely claimed visiting the grave of the Prophet, sallallahu
'alayhi wa sallam, and performing the tawassul (5) by him
as shirk(6). Additionally, he falsely claimed visiting the
graves of other prophets and righteous Muslims (awliya') and
performing tawassul by them was shirk as well. He added to
this by saying, "To call upon the Prophet, sallallahu
'alayhi wa sallam, when performing tawassul by the Prophet
is shirk." He passed the same judgment of shirk on the
ones who call upon other prophets and righteous Muslims (awliya')
in performing tawassul by them.
In an effort to give credibility to his innovations Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
embellished his sayings by quotations which he selected from
Islamic sources, i.e., quotations which are used as proofs
for many issues but not the issues which Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
was attempting to support. He brought false statements and
tried to beautify them for the laymen until they followed
him. He wrote treatises for them until they believed that
most of the People of Tawhid(7) were blasphemers.
Alliance with The Su'udiyy Family
Moreover, Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab called
upon the princes of eastern Arabia and the people of ad-Dar'iyyah(8)
to support him. They carried his doctrine and made this endeavor
a means to strengthen and expand their kingdom. They worked
together to suppress the Bedouins of the deserts until they
overcame them and those Bedouins followed them and became
foot-soldiers for them without pay. After that, these masses
started to believe that whoever does not believe in what Ibn
'Abdul-Wahhab said is a blasphemer, and it is Islamically
lawful (halal) to shed his blood and plunder his money.
The matter of Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab started to evidence itself
in 1143 A.H. and began spreading after 1150 A.H. Subsequently,
the scholars--even his brother, Shaykh Sulayman and the rest
of his shaykhs-- authored many treatises to refute him. But
Muhammad Ibn Su'ud, the Prince of ad-Dar'iyyah in eastern
Arabia, supported him and worked to spread his ideology. Ibn
Su'ud was from Banu Hanifah, the people of Musaylimah al-Kadhdhab(9).
When Muhammad Ibn Su'ud died, his son 'Abdul-'Aziz Ibn Muhammad
Ibn Su'ud took over the responsibility of fulfilling the vile
task of spreading the Wahhabi beliefs.
Many of the shaykhs of Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab in Medina used to
say, "He will be misguided, and he will misguide those
for whom Allah willed the misguidance." Things took place
as per the speculation of the scholars. Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
claimed his intention behind the madhhab he invented was "to
purify the tawhid" and "repudiate the shirk."
He also claimed people had been following the shirk for six-hundred
years and he revived their Religion for them!!
The Methodology of Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab took the verses
revealed to speak about the blasphemers and applied them to
the Muslims. The following examples from the Qur'an illustrate
this point. Allah, ta'ala, said in Surat al-Ahqaf, Ayah 5:
This verse means: [Who is
more astray than the one who performs supplication (du'a')
to [worship] other than Allah; the one other than Allah he
supplicates to will not answer his du'a'.]
Allah, ta'ala said in Surat
Yunus, Ayah 106 :
This verse means: [Do not
perform supplication (du'a') to [worship] other than Allah;
the one other than Allah you supplicate to will not benefit
you and will not harm you.]
The verses in the Qur'an similar to these ones are numerous.
Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab gravely misinterpreted the previously
cited verses and said: "The Muslim who asks help from
the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, other prophets,
or the righteous people (salihun), or who calls or asks any
of them for intercession is like those blasphemers mentioned
in the Qur'an." According to the false claim of Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab,
the Muslims who do these things are blasphemers.
He also considered visiting the grave of Prophet Muhammad
and the graves of other prophets and righteous Muslims for
blessings as blasphemy. Allah revealed Ayah 3 of Surat az-Zumar
in reference to the mushrikun:
This verse means: [Those
who worship the idols said: "We do not worship them except
to achieve a higher status from Allah."]
Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab falsely stated: "Those who perform
tawassul (asking Allah by the prophets, for example) are similar
to those blasphemers mentioned in Surat az-Zumar, Ayah 3,
who claim they do not worship the idols except to achieve
a higher status from Allah." He said: "The blasphemers
did not believe the idols create anything; they believed Allah
is the Creator." He gave his version of proof from the
Qur'an by citing Surat Luqman, Ayah 25 and Surat az-Zumar,
Ayah 38, in which Allah said:
These verses mean: [If you
ask them, `Who created the heavens and earth?' They will say,
In Surat az-Zukhruf, Ayah 87, Allah said:
Which means: [If you ask
them, `Who created them?' They will say, `Allah'.] Ibn
'Abdul-Wahhab falsely concluded from these verses that the
Muslims who perform tawassul are similar to those blasphemers.
The Scholars Refute Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
In their writings to refute Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab's
sayings, the scholars said his deduction was false. The believers
did not consider the prophets or the awliya' as gods and they
did not deem them partners to Allah. Instead, they correctly
believe the prophets and awliya' are good slaves and creations
of Allah, and they do not deserve to be worshipped.
The blasphemers intended in these verses believed their idols
deserved Godhood. They exalted them as one would exalt his
Creator, even though they believed the idols did not create
the heavens and the earth. The believers, on the other hand,
do not believe the prophets or righteous Muslims (awliya')
deserve to be worshipped, nor do they deserve to be attributed
with Godhood, nor do they exalt them as one would exalt God.
They believe these people are good slaves of Allah, His beloved
ones whom He chose, and by their blessings (barakah) Allah
grants His mercy to His creation. Hence, when the slaves of
Allah seek the blessings (barakah) of the prophets and righteous
Muslims (awliya') they are seeking these blessings as a mercy
There are many proofs and examples from the Qur'an and Sunnah
about this basic belief of the Muslims. Muslims believe Allah
is the Creator, the One Who grants benefit and inflicts harm,
and the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. Muslims believe
that no one other than Allah has the power to affect the creation.
The prophets and righteous people do not create anything.
They do not possess the power to bestow benefit or inflict
harm on others, but Allah is the One Who bestows the mercy
upon the slaves by the righteous Muslims' blessings.
Hence, the belief of the blasphemers, i.e., the belief their
idols deserve to be worshipped and have Godhood, is what makes
them fall into blasphemy. This saying of the blasphemers,
as previously cited in Surat az-Zumar, Ayah 3, was said in
an effort to justify their belief when they were disproved
and shown idols do not deserve to be worshipped.
How can Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab and those who follow him find it
permissible to equate the believers, who believed in tawhid,
to those blasphemers, who believed in the Godhood of the idols?
All the previously cited verses and the verses which are similar
to them are specific to the blasphemers who associate partners
with Allah--none of the believers are included.
Al-Bukhariyy narrated by the route of Ibn 'Umar, may Allah
raise their ranks, that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa
sallam, described the Khawarij as those who took the verses
revealed about the blasphemers and attributed them to the
believers! In the narration by the route of Ibn 'Umar the
which means: "What
I fear most for my nation is a man who mis-explains the Qur'an
and takes it out of context." This hadith and the
previous one apply very well to the Wahhabis.
Proofs for Tawassul
The Permissibility of Asking Allah for Things by Some
of His Creation
If performing tawassul had been blasphemy,
then the believers, i.e., the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi
wa sallam, his Companions, and the Salaf and Khalaf of this
nation would not have done it. Yet it is mentioned in the
sahih hadith of the Prophet that the Prophet used to ask Allah
which means: "O Allah,
I ask You by the status of those who ask You.(10)
" Without doubt, this is tawassul. The Prophet, sallallahu
'alayhi wa sallam, used to teach this supplication (du'a')
to his Companions and order them to say it. This issue was
expounded upon in different books and treatises refuting Ibn
There is a hadith related by al-Hakim that mentions after
Adam ate from the tree, he performed tawassul by our Prophet,
sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. He did that, because he saw
the name of the Prophet written on the 'Arsh, Adam said: "O
Allah, by the dignity of this son [Muhammad], forgive this
It was also related by Ibn Hibban, that upon the death of
Fatimah Bint Asad, may Allah raise her rank, the Prophet,
sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, with his own honorable hands,
put her in her grave and said: "O Allah, forgive my
mother(11), Fatimah Bint Asad, and widen her
place by the status of Your Prophet and the prophets who came
before me. You are the most Merciful."
There is a hadith classified as sahih(12), that a blind man
asked the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, to make a
supplication (du'a') to Allah to return his sight. The Prophet
ordered him to make ablution (wudu') and pray two rak'ahs
and then say:
"O Allah, I ask You and direct myself to You by Your
Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet
of Mercy. O Muhammad, I
ask Allah by you to fulfill my need. O Allah, enable him to
intercede for me."
The blind man did what the Prophet taught him to do(13) and
Allah brought his sight back. Moreover, as related by at-Tabaraniyy,
the tawassul made by the blind man was used by the Companions
and Salaf after the death of the Prophet.
'Umar Ibn al-Khattab performed the tawassul by al-'Abbas (the
uncle of the Prophet), may Allah reward their deeds, when
he prayed the Salah of 'Istisqa'(14) with the people. There
are other proofs mentioned in the books of the Islamic scholars
but we will not recount them at length here.
The one who pursues the saying of the Companions and their
followers will find a great deal of proof about the validity
of calling the prophet by saying "O Muhammad"
in his presence as well as in his absence and in his life
as well as after his death. In fact, many texts include the
phrase which means, "O Muhammad".
Calling the name of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam,
is permissible. An example is the saying of the Companion,
Bilal Ibn al-Harith, may Allah reward his deeds, when he went
to the grave of the Prophet. He said: "O Messenger of
Allah, ask Allah to send rain to your Nation." His saying
contains this format(15).
Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Sulayman al-Kurdiyy(16) was among the
authors who wrote refuting Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab. He was Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab's
own shaykh. Among what he said is as follows:
O Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab, I advise you, for the sake of Allah,
ta'ala, to hold your tongue regarding the Muslims. If you
hear from anyone who asks for help from other than Allah that
one has the power to effect things without the Will of Allah,
then teach him the right thing about this issue, and show
him the proofs which state no one other than Allah brings
things from non-existence into existence. The one who rejects
that is blasphemous. You have no right to label the majority
of the Muslims as blasphemers(17) while you are deviant from
the majority of the Muslims. In fact, it is more reasonable
to consider the one who deviates from the majority of the
Muslims as a blasphemer then to consider the Muslims as a
nation as blasphemers--because the deviant one has followed
a path other than the path of the believers. In Surat an-Nisa',
Ayah 15, Allah said:
This ayah means: [Whomever
contends with the Messenger after the right path was exposed
to him and follows other than the way of the believers, Allah
will leave him to whatever he followed and put him in Hell
The Permissibility of Visiting The Grave of The Prophet
Visiting the grave of the Prophet,
sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was performed by the Companions
and the Salaf and Khalaf who came after them. Many hadiths
cite the benefit of this deed and the scholars of Islam have
written books about this matter(18).
Calling On Someone Other Than Allah
Among of what was mentioned
concerning calling on someone other than Allah, whether that
one is present, absent, dead or alive, is the saying of the
which means: "If the animal of anyone
of you went out of control in the wilderness, then call: `O
slaves of Allah, help me'", since there are slaves
of Allah [i.e. the angels] who will respond to him.
There is another hadith related by al-Bazzar in which the
which means: " If one of you lost
something or needs help while in an open land, then let him
say: "O slaves of Allah, help me."" Another
which means "Rescue me, because Allah
has created slaves whom you do not see."
When traveling at nightfall the Prophet, sallallahu 'alyhi
wa sallam, used to say:
which means: " O earth, my Lord and
your Lord is Allah."
When the Prophet visited the grave of Muslims, he used to
which means: " O people of the graves,
peace be upon you."
In the Tashahhud in as-Salah the Muslim says:
which means: " "O Prophet of Allah,
may Allah protect you from infirmities, and have mercy and
blessings on you.""
There is no harm in calling on and performing tawassul by
someone unless one believes that someone other than Allah
actually creates things. Hence, as long as one believes that
only Allah creates them, there is no harm in performing tawassul.
Likewise, attributing a certain doing to other than Allah
does not harm unless one believes this doer actually creates.
So once it is established the person does not believe the
creating is for other than Allah then attributing a doing
to other than Allah is understood in its proper context. When
one says: "This medicine benefited me," or "This
particular righteous Muslim benefited me," he is merely
exposing the created reason of the benefit. These statements
are also similar to when one says: "This food satisfied
my hunger," or "This water quenched my thirst,"
or "This medicine cured me." When Muslims say such
statements, they understand them in their proper context,
i.e., food, water, and medicine are only reasons, and Allah
is the Creator of their benefit.
The general proofs
mentioned in this summary are enough to refute Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab.
The scholars of Islam have expounded on this issue in several
The History of the Fighting
with the Wahhabiyyah
At the time Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab and his assistants
initiated their treacherous ideology by which they called
the Muslims blasphemers, they were gaining control of eastern
Arabia one tribe after another. This expansion eventually
encompassed al-Yaman, Makkah, al-Madinah, and the tribes of
al-Hijaz all the way to ash-Sham.
Debating with the Scholars of Makkah
Initially, the Wahhabis sent a group to Makkah
and al-Madinah thinking they would be able to spoil the belief
of the scholars of these two holy cities and tamper with their
belief through lies and fabrications. When they reached there
and declared their beliefs, the scholars of Makkah and al-Madinah
refuted them and established the Islamic evidences against
them--which they could not refute. The scholars were certain
about the Wahhabis' ignorance and misguidance and found them
absurd and thoughtless.
After evaluating their beliefs and finding them full of many
types of blasphemy, the Wahhabis fled like frightened zebras
fleeing from a lion. Hence, after establishing the proofs,
the scholars wrote an attestation against the Wahhabiyyah
to the Head Judge of Makkah confirming the Wahhabis as blasphemous
because of their beliefs. The aim of the scholars was to disclose
the misguidance of the Wahhabis and make it known to the Muslims
near and far. This action took place during the rulership
of Sharif Mas'ud Ibn Sa'id Ibn Sa'd Ibn Zayn, the ruler of
Hijaz who ordered the imprisonment of those unjust Wahhabis.
Sharif Mas'ud Ibn Sa'id Ibn Sa'd Ibn Zayn died in 1165 A.H.
Some Wahhabis managed to escape their imprisonment. They went
to ad-Dar'iyyah and spoke about what they encountered in Makkah.
This made the Wahhabis more devilishly haughty, and they started
attacking the tribes which were loyal to the prince of Makkah.
Outbreak of Hostilities:
Fighting in At-Ta'if, Makkah, and Juddah
The fighting between the Wahhabis and the prince
of Makkah, Mawlana Sharif Ghalib Ibn Mus'id Ibn Sa'id Ibn
Sa'd Ibn Zayd, broke out after 1205 A.H. Many battles took
place between the prince and the Wahhabis. Although many people
were killed, the Wahhabis' strength kept intensifying. Their
innovations kept propagating until most of the Bedouin tribes
paid allegiance to them--even the Bedouins who were under
the rulership of the prince of Makkah.
In 1217 A.H., they marched with big armies to the area of
at-Ta'if. In Dhul-Qa'dah (19) of the same year, they lay siege
to the area the Muslims were, subdued them, and killed the
people: men, women, and children. They also looted the Muslims'
belongings and possessions. Only a few people escaped their
After at-Ta'if came under their control, the Wahhabis planned
to march towards Makkah, but this was during the time the
Muslims were performing Pilgrimage, and many of the Muslims
from ash-Sham and Egypt were in Makkah. The Wahhabis knew
if they attacked Makkah at that time all the people performing
Pilgrimage would join in fighting them. They stayed in at-Ta'if
until Hajj was over, and the people had returned to their
countries. Then the Wahhabis and their armies set out to attack
Makkah. Sharif Ghalib did not have enough power to face these
armies, so he went to Juddah. The people of Makkah were afraid
the Wahhabis would treat them in the same manner the people
of at-Ta'if were treated, so they negotiated and surrendered
to them. The Wahhabis granted the people of Makkah security
and entered Makkah on the eighth of Muharram, 1218 A.H. They
occupied themselves there for fourteen days ordering the Muslims
to repent and embrace Islam--since the Wahhabis falsely claimed
them as blasphemers. The people were prohibited from doing
what the Wahhabis incorrectly believed to be blasphemy, like
performing tawassul and visiting the graves.
Having gained control of at-Ta'if and Makkah, the Wahhabis
turned their armies towards Juddah to fight Sharif Ghalib.
When they surrounded Juddah, Sharif Ghalib bombarded them
with cannons and projectiles. He killed many Wahhabis and
prevented the conquering of Juddah. After eight days, the
Wahhabis departed Juddah to return to their own territories.
The Wahhabis left some of their army in Makkah and appointed
'Abdul-Mu'in, the brother of Sharif Ghalib, as prince. 'Abdul-Mu'in
only accepted this position to protect the people of Makkah
and shelter them from the evil mistreatment of the harmful
In the month of Rabi'-ul-'Awwal of the same year, Prince Ghalib
left Juddah accompanied by Sharif Basha--the governor of Juddah
and the representative of the Supreme 'Uthmaniyy (20) Sultan.
They arrived in Makkah with their army and overpowered the
Wahhabis. They expelled the Wahhabi army and this brought
Makkah back under the authority of Sharif Ghalib.
The Capture of Makkah
The Wahhabis left Makkah and became involved with
fighting many of the tribes. They captured at-Ta'if and appointed
'Uthman al-Madayiqiyy as the governor. This governor joined
forces with some of the Wahhabis' soldiers and started fighting
the tribes next to the borders of Makkah and al-Madinah until
they pledged allegiance to them. They eventually subdued all
the tribes and captured all the lands originally under the
authority of the Governor of Makkah. After this, 'Uthman al-Madayiqiyy
mobilized his army in an attempt to capture Makkah. In 1220
A.H. they lay siege to Makkah and then surrounded it from
all directions to tighten this siege. They blocked the routes
to the city and prevented supplies from reaching there. It
was a great hardship on the people of Makkah. Food became
exorbitantly expensive and then unavailable. They resorted
to eating dogs.
Sharif Ghalib was compelled to ask for reconciliation with
the Wahhabis. He accepted for some people to arbitrate between
them. He signed an agreement with conditions stipulating the
rulership of Makkah would be kept for him, and the people
of Makkah would be treated leniently. The Wahhabis accepted
these conditions. They entered Makkah by the end of Dhul-Qa'dah
in 1220 A.H. They also gained control of al-Madinah. They
plundered what was in the room of the Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi
wa sallam, took all the money that was there, and did some
disgraceful acts. They appointed a man among them, Mubarak
Ibn Madyan, as the governor of al-Madinah.
The Wahhabis ruled Makkah and al-Madinah for seven years.
During these years, they prevented the people of ash-Sham
and Egypt from entering Makkah carrying the cloak (21) of
the Ka'bah when they came to perform pilgrimage. The Wahhabis
started to make the cloak for the Ka'bah from black material.
They prevented the people from smoking tobacco. When they
found someone smoking they punished him fiercely. During this
time, the Wahhabis destroyed the domes built on the graves
of the righteous Muslims.
The 'Uthmaniyy State Starts to React
Throughout these years, the 'Uthmaniyy State
was in great confusion and chaos. The 'Uthmaniyys were engaged
in fierce fighting with the Christians and they were trying
to cope with disunity among the ruling power. One sultan would
be appointed, then thrown out or possibly killed, until 1226
AH when the Sultan issued an order to the ruler of Egypt,
Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha, to prepare to fight the Wahhabis.
The Army from Egypt
Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha organized a big army
and by a mandate from the Sultan, appointed his son, Tusun
Basha, as its commanding officer. Those troops left Egypt
in Ramadan of the same year and journeyed by land and by sea
until they reached Yanbu' and regained it form the Wahhabis.
In Dhul-Hijjah 1226 AH, the army reached an area between as-Safra'
and al-Hadidah. A fierce fight broke out with the Bedouins
who were in al-Harbiyyah. These tribes were loyal to the Wahhabis,
and many other tribes also joined them. As a result, the Egyptian
army was badly defeated, many of the soldiers were massacred,
and all the belongings of the army were looted. A small number
of this army made their way back to Egypt.
The Second Egyptian Campaign
In 1227 A.H., Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha was determined
to lead the army to al-Hijaz himself, so he mobilized more
troops. In the month of Sha'ban some ranks of the army were
sent before him--at the peak of their strength and preparedness.
Among their artillery were eighteen canons. In Ramadan, the
army captured what the Wahhabis formerly controlled and regained
the area of as-Safra', al-Hadidah, and other places without
a fight, i.e., by attracting the shaykhs of the Bedouin tribes
to their side. Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha gave money to the leaders
of these tribes and salaries were arranged for them. These
arrangements were made under the management of Sharif Ghalib,
the Sharif of Makkah, who fooled the Wahhabis into believing
he was on their side. The first time the Egyptians were defeated,
they had not consulted with Sharif Ghalib--so he was unaware
of their need for a similar arrangement.
Around the end of Dhul-Qa'dah, the army entered al-Madinah.
When the news about the victory of the Muslim army reached
Egypt, the Muslims celebrated the event for three days. They
decorated the city, displayed fireworks, and fired their guns
in celebration. They conveyed this good news to all the Christian
The army traveling by sea captured Juddah at the beginning
of Muharram, 1228 A.H., and then headed towards Makkah to
regain control. The army did not engage in any battles with
the Wahhabis as a result of the secret arrangements the Sharif
managed to achieve. When the army reached Juddah, the Wahhabiyy
army and princes fled Makkah. Al-Madayiqiyy, the Wahhabi princes
of at-Ta'if, and their army fled at-Ta'if when they got word
the Muslim army regained control of Juddah and Makkah.
The prince of the Wahhabis, Prince Su'ud, went to Hajj in
1227 A.H., before these events took place. After Hajj he went
to at-Ta'if and then back to ad-Dar'iyyah. It was some time
before he learned about the defeat in al-Madinah the Wahhabis
suffered at the hands of the Sultan's army. When he arrived
in ad-Dar'iyyah he got word of the capture of Makkah and at-Ta'if.
The Good News Reaches The Sultan
In Rabi'-ul-'Awwal, 1228 A.H., Muhammad 'Aliyy
Basha sent delegates to the capital of the state (Istanbul)
carrying good new and keys. A written correspondence explained
the keys were from Makkah, al-Madinah, Juddah and at-Ta'if.
They entered the palace of the Sultan in a dignified and royal
parade, followed by drummers announcing the great victory
as songs were chanted joyfully. Fireworks were lit and cannons
were fired; the delegates who brought the keys were honored.
The Sultan promoted the rank of Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha, decorated
him with many medallions, and granted him other medallions
with an authorization to decorate the officers of his choice.
In Shawwal, 1228 A.H., before Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha left Egypt
for al-Hijaz, Sharif Ghalib caught 'Uthman al-Madayiqiyy,
the Wahhabi governor of at-Ta'if, who was one of their greatest
agents and rulers. He was placed in iron chains and sent to
Egypt. He arrived in Egypt in Dhul-Qa'dah--after Muhammad
'Aliyy Basha left for al-Hijaz. From Egypt, 'Uthman al-Madayiqiyy
was sent to the capital of the state--where later he was killed.
Punishing Some Wahhabis and Replacing Sharif
Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha reached Makkah in Dhul-Qa'dah,
arrested Sharif Ghalib Ibn Mus'id and sent him to the capital
of the state. Sharif Yahya Ibn Surur Ibn Musa'id, Sharif Ghalib's
nephew, was appointed as the Sharif (Governor) of Makkah.
In Muharram, 1229 A.H., Mubarak Ibn Madyan, the Wahhabi governor
of al-Madinah was sent to the capital. He was carried around
Constantinople in a disgraceful manner for the people to see.
He was killed after this, and his head was hung on the gate
of the government building. The same thing was done to 'Uthman
al-Madayiqiyy as a punishment for all the crimes they committed
during their rulership.
Sharif Ghalib was sent to Salonika (22), held in high regard,
and treated well until he died in 1231 A.H. He was buried
there, and a dome was constructed over his grave--and to this
day, the people still visit his grave. Sharif Ghalib's rulership
over Makkah lasted for twenty-six years.
Uprooting The Wahhabis
Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha continued to fight
the Wahhabis, and he sent a large number of troops to Saudi
Arabia in the areas of Turabah, Bishah, Ghamid, Dhahran, and
'Asir. His aim was to eradicate the Wahhabis, so he personally
led the army in pursuit of them. In Sha'ban, 1229 A.H., he
located them, killed and captured many, and demolished their
strongholds. Prince Su'ud, the head of the Wahhabis, died
in Jumadal-Ula, and his son, 'Abdullah, took over the leadership.
Shortly before the time of Pilgrimage, Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha
left these areas and departed for Makkah. He performed Hajj
and stayed in Makkah until Rajab, 1230 A.H. Muhammad 'Aliyy
Basha left Hasan Basha (23) in Makkah and returned to Egypt
in the middle of Rajab, 1230 A.H. He had spent one year and
seven months residing in al-Hijaz, because he would not go
back to Egypt until he had arranged the affairs of al-Hijaz
and destroyed the Wahhabi factions spread throughout the Bedouin
tribes of al-Hijaz and Eastern Arabia.
The Third Egyptian Campaign
The Wahhabi prince, 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud, was still
in ad-Dar'iyyah when Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha made preparations
for an army to fight him. The troops were sent under the leadership
of his son, Ibrahim Basha. Prior to this, 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud
corresponded with Tusun Basha Ibn Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha; Tusun
Basha was in al-Madinah, to make a peace accord with 'Abdullah
Ibn Su'ud. In this proposed accord, he agreed to pay his loyalty
to Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha on the condition he was left as the
governor of that area. Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha did not approve
this arrangement. The army was mobilized under Ibrahim's command
at the end of 1231 A.H. Ibrahim Basha and his army reached
ad-Dar'iyyah in 1232 A.H. where they battled 'Abdullah Ibn
Su'ud. In Dhul-Qa'dah, 1233 A.H., they conquered the Wahhabis.
When Egypt received news of the victory, the people were extremely
triumphant and rejoiced for seven days. They set off fireworks
and fired 1,000 canons in celebration of this great event.
Some of The War Expenses
Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha had a tremendous concern
for fighting the Wahhabis by sea. He spent great amounts of
money to attain his goal. Some of those who used to serve
him said on one occasion 45,000 riyals (24) were paid to transport
ammunition (25). This costly payment was one of many times
such things occurred. Another time, one transport in particular
was made for ammunition carried from Yanbu' to al-Madinah.
Each camel cost six riyals, half of which was paid by the
governor of Yanbu' and the other half by the governor of al-Madinah.
Upon the arrival of the shipment from al-Madinah to ad-Dar'iyyah,
the fee for the transport of ammunition alone was 140,000
The Capture of The Wahhabis' Leader
Ibrahim Basha caught 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud
and sent him and many of the Wahhabi princes to Egypt. They
arrived on the seventeenth of Muharram, 1234 A.H., where people
gathered to see the Wahhabi leader paraded around the capital
riding on a camel. After this, 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud was brought
to see Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha. Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha stood
up for 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud, was gentle with him, and smiled
as he let Abdullah sit beside him. Muhammad 'Aliyy Basha talked
Al-Basha: Why do you keep rebelling?
Ibn Su'ud: The war goes on; you lose sometimes and you win
Al-Basha: How did you find my son, Ibrahim Basha?
Ibn Su'ud: He was not reckless but he put forth effort and
so did we until what Allah had willed happened.
Al-Basha: I will petition our master, the Sultan, on your
Ibn Su'ud: What Allah willed to be shall be.
Al-Basha ordered a robe (26) to be put on Ibn Su'ud before
he left to the house of Isma'il Basha in Bulaq (27). Abdullah
Ibn Su'ud had a small metal box with him.
Al-Basha: What is this?
Ibn Su'ud: This was taken by my father from the room of the
Nabi. I am taking it with me to the Sultan.
Al-Basha ordered the box to be opened. They found three Mushafs
in it--the like of which no one had ever seen--and with them
were 300 large pearls, one large emerald, and a golden ribbon.
Al-Basha: You have taken much more than that.
Ibn Su'ud: This is what I found kept by my father. He did
not take all what was in the room for himself. The Bedouin
tribesmen, the people of al-Madinah, the Aghas of al-Haram,
and the Sharif of Makkah also removed things from the Nabi's
Al-Basha: That is true. We found some of these things with
Then 'Abdullah Ibn Su'ud was sent to the place of the Sultan.
In Muharram, 1235 A.H., Ibrahim Basha returned to Egypt from
al-Hijaz after he destroyed ad-Dar'iyyah such that it was
abandoned by its inhabitants. When Ibn Su'ud reached the headquarters
of the Sultanate in Rabi'-ul-'Awwal, he was paraded around
the city for all the people to see. He was then put to death
at the Door of Hamayun (as a punishment for his crimes). The
chiefs of his followers were executed in different places.
This is a very brief summary of the story
of Muhammad Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab. To talk at length on each of
these details would be very lengthy. The tribulations inflicted
by the Wahhabis were a calamity for the Muslims. The Wahhabis
shed a great deal of blood and robbed a great deal of money;
their harm was prevalent and their evil spread.
Many of the hadiths of the Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam,
spoke explicitly about this tribulation. One narration said:
which means: <<There will be people
who come from the eastern side of Arabia who will recite Qur'an,
but their recitation will not pass beyond their collarbones
(28). They will go out of Islam as swiftly as the arrow
goes through the prey. Their sign is shaving their heads.>>
This hadith was mentioned in many narrations, including Sahih-ul-Bukhariyy
and other books of hadith. There is no need to expound on
listing these narrations or their narrators because they are
well-known and of the sahih (29) classification.
The Nabi said: "Their sign is shaving their heads."
This is an explicit reference to the Wahhabi sect. They used
to order all those who follow them to shave their heads. None
of the previous sects, i.e., those who came before the Wahhabis,
like the Khawarij or other innovators, had this sign.
As-Sayyid 'Abdur-Rahman al-Ahdal, the Mufti of Zabid, used
to say: "There is no need for writing against the Wahhabis.
For, in refuting them, it is sufficient to mention the hadith
of the Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam: <<Their
sign is shaving their heads>> since no other innovators
had ever done it."
It happened once that a women made her point against Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
when they compelled her to follow them and she did. He ordered
her to shave her head. She told him: "Since you order
the woman to shave her head, you have to order the man to
shave his beard. The hair of the women is her decoration and
the decoration of the man is his beard." Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab
could not answer her.
Among of what the Wahhabis used to do was to prevent the people
from asking the Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, for his
intercession--although the hadiths about the Nabi's intercession
are numerous and are of the mutawatir (30) classification.
Most of his intercession is for the Muslims of his nation
who committed major sins. The Wahhabis also prohibited Muslims
from reading Dala'il-ul-Khayrat--which includes saying as-Salat
on the Nabi and mentioning many of the Nabi's complete descriptions.
They said this is blasphemy. They also prevented Muslims from
saying as-Salat on the Nabi on the minarets after the Adhan.
Once a righteous blind Muslim was calling Adhan and said as-Salat
on the Nabi after the Adhan (31). The Wahhabis brought him
to Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab who ordered his execution.
If I [the author] was to pursue the mischievous things the
Wahhabis did, I would fill notebooks and lots of papers. However,
what has been mentioned thus far is enough.
Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, knows best.
1) Al-Hijaz refers to the western part of Arabia which
includes Mecca and Medina.
2) Al-Haramayn refers to Mecca and Medina.
3) Ash-Sham refers to the area that includes Syria,
Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.
4) Only the first adversity will be presented in this
5) Tawassul is asking Allah for goodness by a prophet,
righteous believer, etc.
6) Shirk refers to associating partners to Allah.
7) The People of Tawhid refers to the Muslims.
8) Ad-Dar'iyyah is a region north of the city of Riyad,
9) Musaylimah al-Kadhdhab was a blasphemous man who
claimed the status of prophethood for himself after the death
of Prophet Muhammad. He was killed by the Muslims during the
caliphate of Abu Bakr, may Allah raise his rank.
10) Ibn Majah and others related this hadith and the-Hafidh,
Ibn Hajar, deemed it a strong hadith.
11) The Prophet called her `my mother' out of likening
her to his real mother.
12) Sixteen hafidhs of hadith classified this hadith
as sahih, including at-Tirmidhiyy, at-Tabaraniyy, al-Bayhaqiyy,
as-Subkiyy, among others.
13) It is clear in the narrations of this hadith, the
blind man was not in the session of the Prophet when he did
as the Prophet ordered him.
14) Salah of 'Istisqa' refers to performing a specific
prayer which includes making supplication for rain.
15) Al-Bayhaqiyy related this hadith and classified
it as Sahih.
16) Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Sulaym al-Kurdiyy was the one
who wrote al-Hashiyah on the explanation of Ibn Hajar to the
text of Bafadl.
17) It is mentioned in a hadith it is easier for the
devil to trick the lonely person who is away from other Muslims.
The Prophet, sallallahu al 'alayhi wa sallam, while encouraging
the Muslims to perform the prayers in congregation said:
which means: "Moreover, the wolf will eat the lonely
18) Among these hadiths is the one related by ad-Daraqutniyy
that the Prophet said: "On the Day of Judgment, I will
intercede for the one who visits my grave with the good intention."
19) At-Ta'if is a city in Hijaz.Dhul-Qa'dah is the
eleventh month of the Islamic lunar calendar.
20) The 'Uthmaniyy State was the Islamic state
governing Turkey, parts of the ex-USSR, Greece, Bulgaria,
Romania, ex-Yugoslavia, Albania, Iraq, the Arabic peninsula,
Egypt, ash-Sham, Libya, and other areas.
21)The cloak of the Ka'bah is the cloth covering the
22)Salonika is a town in Greece.
23)Hasan Basha was one of the leaders of the Egyptian
24)Riyals were a unit of silver currency at that time.
25)This transport of ammunition involved crossing the
Red Sea by ship and then crossing the land by camel.
26)Clothing with a nice garment is a traditional show
27)Bulaq is an area in Cairo.
28)This means they do not understand the meaning of
what they read.
29) A sahih hadith is a hadith which is related by
a trustworthy Muslim from another trustworthy Muslim back
to the Nabi or his Companion, and is devoid of any defect
in this narration.
30) A mutawatir hadith is a hadith related by a large
number of Muslims who witnessed it and conveyed it to large
group of people who conveyed it to another large number and
so on, until it reached us. Such a hadith is narrated in a
way which is impossible for the narrators to have agreed to
lie about it.
31)Adhan is the Call for Prayer.